The British Army is reflecting on the lessons that can be learned during the Ukraine-Russia conflict to adapt its own tactics with Apache attack helicopters.
Pilots of 3 Regiment Army Air Corps, who command the country’s Apache AH-64E attack helicopters, are adapting their skills and drills to face the challenges of the modern battlefield, based on what they have seen in Ukraine.
Lessons include overcoming air defences, using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and the new threat of electronic warfare.
The Apache AH-64 is the world's most advanced helicopter and has been used by the British military in Libya, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
The new E model Apache has a top speed of 186 mph, a new software overhaul to allow for greater target acquisition and can deploy 'Romeo' variant Hellfire missiles.
Fifty of the new models are set to join the Army by 2025, with nearly £300m invested in the first delivery.
Apache pilot Captain 'H' said: "We're tailoring what we do based on the lessons of the modern battlefield and the requirements of our role, which is to provide aviation deep attack as part of the Army's warfighting division.
"We've had to completely change how we operate both in the air and on the ground, to best exploit the AH-64E's improved sensors, weapons and communications systems, as well as its better flying performance."
For the British Army, being ready to fly against air defence systems has been a significant change from the uncontested operations flown by the previous Apache Mk 1 in Afghanistan
Capt 'H' added: "We've had to change from flying hard and fast – when sometimes showing our presence did what troops on the ground needed from us - to a more cautious approach.
"To avoid detection and being engaged by air defence, we're flying low and using the contours and features, like woods, to get close enough to attack our targets."
Another aspect of the Army's reflection on the Apache is how their helicopters can be better sustained out in the field.
Forward Arming and Refuelling Points (FARPs) allow pilots to operate deep into the field, but this has had to be adapted to prevent the vital support teams from being located by drones or by having communications intercepted.
"We need to be more mobile and tactically-minded to survive," Staff Sergeant Steve Tymms said.
"We can't just set up in a fixed location, so we've split down to small, self-sufficient teams that work to a matrix of locations and times.
"We're basically making appointments and if an aircraft turns up, we'll give it fuel and weapons, but if not then we pack up and go to the next location.
"It keeps us moving and we can do it without radio comms, so we're much harder to target."
Arming and loading point commander Corporal Oliver Kenyon said: "Once an aircraft is at a FARP, then we're an obvious and high-value target.
"The clock's ticking and we must fuel and rearm it quickly, get it back in the air and then move ourselves before we get fired on.
"Working like this makes us more survivable, so we can continue to service the aircraft, so they can keep doing their job attacking the enemy."
A key change has been Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineer soldiers who maintain the aircraft working on individual aircraft from concealed and dispersed positions, rather than a centralised position.
Aircraft technician Lance Corporal Chris Voller said: "We can't expect to have the luxury of a well-established and secure base.
"Dispersal is about survivability, by presenting the enemy with lots of smaller targets rather than having all the aircraft parked together.
"Working like this is more challenging and needs good communication and planning to think about the kind of jobs we’ll be doing and the tools and spare parts that we'll need."