More details have emerged about how Russia plans to give basic military training to students at its secondary schools.
The module in the 'Basics of Life Safety' course will include training with AK series assault rifles and hand grenades, military drill and salutes, and the use of personal protective equipment, according to UK defence intelligence.
The MOD says the lessons will become mandatory from 1 September 2023.
In December, Moscow also announced a 'military training basics' programme for university students.
The Ministry of Defence says it highlights an "increasingly militarised atmosphere" in wartime Russia, "as well as being a (likely deliberate) evocation of the Soviet Union: similar training was mandatory in schools up to 1993".