After the failure of an attempted coup
by a faction within the Turkish military, we've taken a look at the second largest standing military force in NATO (after the United States).
Last year the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) had an estimated strength of 639,551 military, civilian and paramilitary personnel. It's a large military, made possible by conscription.
The Global Firepower website ranks Turkey 14th in the world for military strength in terms of active military manpower, listing 410,500 people as being militarily active (from a population base of 79,414,269). 185,630 are also listed as being in reserve, ranking Turkey 38th.
As a point of comparison, the UK has a population of 64,088,222, with 150,000 personnel listed as active military manpower, and 182,000 in reserve.
Street demonstrations against the coup attempt. Picture: Lubunya
The military is made up of the Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvelleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvelleri), and the Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvelleri).
61 countries have compulsory military service lasting for differing periods, of which Turkey is one.
In Turkey, compulsory service is in effect for males between the ages of 21 and 41, though voluntary service can begin at age 18.
Women can serve in the Turkish military, but only as officers.
Non-university graduates are required to serve for 12 months; graduates for 6-12 months.
Turkish citizens living overseas can be made exempt from military service with payment.
In recent years, Turkey has spent more than the NATO
target of GDP on its military; in 2015 it spent 2.29 per cent.
President Erdogan's party, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) has worked to increase civilian control of the military since 2002, and the military's role in internal security has been reduced.
Most military personnel serve in the army, or Turkish Land Forces.
It boasts a strength of approximately 315,000 soldiers, 3,778 tanks, 7,550 armoured fighting vehicles, 1,013 self-propelled guns, 697 towed-artillery pieces, and 811 multiple-launch rocket systems.
The Turkish navy has approximately 48,600 personnel, 51 aircraft, and 194 ships (including 16 frigates, 8 corvettes, 13 submarines, 29 coastal defence craft, and 15 mine warfare craft). Turkey has no aircraft carriers.
The Air Force has 60,000 personnel and a total of 1,007 aircraft. This breaks down as 207 fighters/interceptors, 207 fixed-wing attack aircraft, 439 transport aircraft, 276 trainer aircraft, and 445 helicopters, of which 64 are attack helicopters (many of these categories overlap).
Other personnel serve in the General Staff, the Turkish Coast Guard, and the Gendarmerie General Command, a branch of the military that maintains law and order in rural areas outside of normal law enforcement jurisdiction.
Sources: CIA Factbook, Global Firepower.