The former SAS commander said Russia had made plain its preparedness to use force to expand its interests, while it had also been "systematic" in its efforts to exploit cyber, space and undersea military arenas.
"We cannot be complacent about the threat Russia poses or leave it uncontested."
Russia has been the subject of international condemnation over its annexation of Crimea and continued involvement in the conflict in Ukraine that also saw it blamed for the downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17.
The Kremlin has also been accused of aggression in cyberspace, including meddling in the 2016 US election and attacks on a number of Western interests.
Its military intelligence unit, the GRU, is suspected of having a global reach and has been accused of being responsible for the nerve agent attack in Salisbury.
In October Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson accused Russia of acting like a "pariah state".
Countering Russia's suspected efforts to destabilise the established world order has led to debate over the role of Nato - including president Donald Trump's threats over the US' contribution - and suggestions of other means of international cooperation.