13 ships and more than ten aircraft are taking part in Exercise Formidable Shield (Picture: Royal Navy).
Two Royal Navy warships have had their missile capability put to the test alongside NATO allies on exercise off the Scottish coast.
Exercise Formidable Shield, which lasts for ten days, got underway earlier in the week and was organised by the US Navy's 6th Fleet.
Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain are also participating in the exercise, while Belgium and Germany have officers embarked with the task group.
The Royal Navy said the live-fire and missile defence exercise is the largest of its type.
13 ships, more than to aircraft and approximately 3,300 personnel are taking part.
Type 45 destroyer HMS Defender and a Type 23 frigate which as well as developing air defence tactics, will also collect information to aid ballistic missile defence research.
Vice Admiral Lisa Franchetti, Commander of the US 6th Fleet, said the exercise shows the allies' "high-end warfighting capability in integrated air and missile defence".