Sir Richard Dearlove's comments come as US President Donald Trump signed an executive order effectively banning American firms from using foreign telecoms deemed to pose a threat to national security.
Although it does not name Huawei, it is widely considered to be aimed at the firm following repeated warnings by US officials that it could be used by the Chinese state to spy on or sabotage foreign networks.
In a foreword to a new report by the Henry Jackson Society (HJS) think tank, Sir Richard said the involvement of Huawei had to be viewed as a "potential security risk" to the UK.
"The fact that the British Government now appears to have decided to place the development of some its most sensitive critical infrastructure in the hands of a company from the People's Republic of China (PRC) is deeply worrying," he wrote.
"The PRC uses its sophisticated technical capabilities not only to control its own population (to an extreme and growing degree), but it also conducts remotely aggressive intelligence gathering operations on a global scale.
"No part of the communist Chinese state is ultimately able to operate free of the control exercised by its Communist Party leadership.
"To place the PRC in a potentially advantageous exploitative position in the UK's future telecommunications systems therefore is a risk, however remote it may seem at the moment, we simply do not need to take."