Norway is a small nation; its population of five million is smaller than Scotland's.
One-third of Norway is within the Arctic Circle and 10% of its population live there, so it is no surprise that the NATO Centre of Excellence for Cold Weather Operations is based in the country.
It is easy to see Norway mainly as a training centre and staging post, given that the country's most famous military installation is the cave complex outside Trondheim used for storing US military equipment.
The caves, which were purpose-built in 1982, hold hundreds of vehicles, munitions and other gear, and are maintained by the Norwegians.
Originally the aim was simply to store equipment for American forces so they could deploy rapidly to the area, but since then the caves have supplied equipment to other theatres including Iraq and Afghanistan.
The caves would play a significant role in any US deployment to Europe in wartime.
Military planners are currently looking at increasing the caves capacity and doubling or tripling the equipment stored there.
However, Norway is not simply an arms dump, but a player in its own right, especially when it comes to Arctic warfare.
A new Smart Defence policy has placed priority on the region known as the High North to counter any potential threat.
Since 2009 the Norwegian Army’s headquarters has been in the Arctic town of Bodø, more than 1,000 miles north of the capital Oslo.
The Norwegian Navy operates anti-submarine Fridtjof Nansen-class frigates and Skjold corvettes able to work in Arctic conditions, while an expanded air base at Evenes, also inside the Arctic circle, will host a force of new F-35 fighters.
On a recent Trident Juncture exercise, the frigate Helge Ingstad collided with an oil tanker and sank (work is underway to raise the frigate, but it is likely to be written off).
Air defence for the northern bases is provided by the National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System (NASAMS), a uniquely Norwegian development.
NASAMS is a network-centric system with a variety of radar and other sensors (electro-optical and infra-red) all networked together, along with surface-to-air missile launchers.
One of NASAMS unusual features is that it uses an Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), originally designed to be launched from aircraft.
NASAMS can be transported by truck or rail and is effective against aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles and drones.