More than 700 military personnel have tested positive for coronavirus since the start of the Carrier Strike Group 21 (CSG21) deployment.
As of 15 October, the total number of positive cases reached 710 – out of more than 3,000 military staff.
Labour's Stephen Morgan MP, Shadow Armed Forces minister, said in a post on Twitter: "Ministers must get a grip of this quickly to ensure this does not impact future operational capabilities and that we are protecting our servicemen and servicewomen."
In August, the Government was accused of "neglecting" troops after a surge in military coronavirus cases.
Watch: Carrier Strike Group has intercepted Russian military during deployment.
It came after July saw the highest increase of COVID-19 cases this year for military personnel – jumping by 1,474 positive results.
And in July, the Carrier Strike Group faced an outbreak of COVID-19 cases.
In a statement at the time, the Royal Navy said all personnel deployed as part of CSG21 had received both doses of the vaccine and the outbreak would have "no effects on the deployment".
The Carrier Strike Group, led by HMS Queen Elizabeth, is currently in India taking part in a number of exercises with the Indian military.
Earlier this month, the Strike Group began its journey back from the Indo-Pacific.