Chinese Liaoning aircraft carrier
With China's first aircraft carrier having paid its first port call to Hong Kong, Forces News takes a look at the Liaoning's long and unusual story.
 
The visit, intended to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the region's handover from British to Chinese rule, came after China confirmed the ship was combat ready in November last year.
 
Previously described by Chinese media as a surface platform for training and tests, the state-run Global Times announced the Liaoning now had "a real combat capacity". It quoted a government official, Li Dongyou, as saying she is "constantly prepared for war":
 
The Liaoning: A History
 
The first strange thing about the carrier? She wasn't even built by China.
 
Liaoning was in fact born as 'Riga'. Built for the Soviet Navy as the sister ship to the Admiral Kuznetsov (now Russia's only carrier), she has similar capabilities and characteristics - but a much more complicated history. 
 
Launched in 1988, she was renamed 'Varyag' two years later.
 
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China's carrier was built in a shipyard in what's now Ukraine
 
Here, though, things started getting complicated. Ownership was transferred to Ukraine with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and construction had ceased on the carrier by 1992, with work 68% complete.
 
The ship was structurally complete but without electronics, an engine or rudder. She was left idle and unmaintained as Ukraine began searching for potential buyers, making overtures to China, but it wasn't until 1998 that a winning bid was announced. 
 
Finding A Buyer
 
Yet here the plot thickens even further. The buyer wasn't the Chinese Navy, but the Chong Lot Travel Agency, a Hong Kong-based company.
 
It bid US $20 million to tow Varyag out of the Black Sea, through the Suez Canal and around southern Asia to the autonomous Chinese territory of Macau, where she was to be moored and converted into a floating hotel and casino.
 
The man at the helm of the deal, Xu Zengping, later told the South China Morning Post that he had been secretly commissioned by the Chinese Navy to buy the carrier, with the floating hotel and casino a cover story to avoid offending the US and to assuage Ukrainian concerns about potential military use.
 
He'd been warned that the purchase was a risky one, due to the lack of Navy funds and support from Beijing for the deal. Officials in Macau, meanwhile, had warned Chong Lot that it would not be allowed to berth Varyag in its harbour before the auction was closed.
 
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Varyag before she became 'Liaoning'
 
But after being bowled over by a visit to the ship in Ukraine, he decided to gamble his own funds on the deal, and after a negotiation in Kiev, lubricated by bribery and liquor, was successful at auction.
 
It would ultimately cost him at least US $120 million, with shell companies having to be created, and transit fees, tow bills and fines having to be paid.
 
He says no reimbursement of any kind was received from China, and that he's spent almost two decades repaying his debts, in part by selling properties including his palatial home. It's been suggested that part of the reason is that many of the naval officials who ordered the mission had either died or were in jail.
 
The Woes Continue
 
Next, it was time to tow her home. The only problem: Chong Lot couldn't get permission from Turkey for the half-built carrier to transit the dangerous Bosphorus strait, saying the vessel posed too great a danger to maritime traffic.
 
So the hulk spent 16 months circling in the Black Sea under tow while high-level Chinese officials negotiated, offering Chinese tourism as an incentive to allow the ship passage.
 
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Varyag under tow in Istanbul
 
In the end, Turkey relented in late 2001. Varyag passed through the Dardanelles without incident on November 2, escorted by 27 other vessels.
 
Just two days later, however, she was caught in a force 10 gale and broke adrift while passing the Greek island of Skyros, and began drifting toward the island of Euboea.
 
The hulk was taken back under tow on November 6, although this came after a sailor had died having falling while attempting to reattach the tow lines.
 
Work Finally Underway
 
Refurbishment work and fitting out began in 2005 after a move to dry dock in the city of Dalian. Engines and 'other heavy equipment' were installed from 2009, with sea trials starting two years later.
 
Smaller-scale hiccups continued, with Liaoning at one point experiencing a steam burst in her engine compartment which made the ship lose power, and forced crew to evacuate some parts of her.
 
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During refit in Dalian
 
But trials were finally over in 2012, after which the carrier was commissioned and officially named Liaoning (pictured top), in honour of the province in which she was retrofitted - 24 years after her initial launch.
 
State media reported that it would be another four to five years before the Liaoning reached full capacity, however, because of training and coordination necessary due to her being the first operational Chinese aircraft carrier.
 
Liaoning Today
 
Nowadays, Liaoning is finally able to do what she was intended for. She can carry a total of 36 aircraft, including 24 J-15 fighter jets and a number of military helicopters.
 
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A J-15 prototype on the newly-named Liaoning
 

The main difference between her and her Russian sister ship is that unlike the Kuznetsov, which carries surface-attack cruise missiles, Liaoning is equipped only with air defence weapons and must use its aircraft for surface attack.

Looking forward, some geopolitical analysts have feared that China could use Liaoning and newer carriers like the Type 001A to intimidate smaller countries that have territorial claims in the South China Sea, as well as extending air control further south of the disputed area.

With thanks to Simon Yang for photography.

More: Russia And China Stage Naval Drill In Contested Seas